Bile acid compounds can be divided into free and conjugated bile acids, or primary and secondary. With our own bile acid database, MetwareBio offers absolute quantification of 65 molecules in a single run.
24-carbon sterols, also known as bile acids, are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and are the primary components of the bile. These alkanoic acids play a crucial role in regulating metabolism by maintaining cholesterol balance and promoting lipid digestion and absorption. They also possess anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. While most bile acids are recycled through hepatic and intestinal circulation, around 5% are eventually excreted in feces.
♦ Absolute quantification: 65 standard curves, r > 0.99, 13 isotope internal standards;
♦ High sensitivity: AB QTRAP® 6500+ LC-MS/MS，ng/ml concentration can be detected;
♦ Wide coverage: Large number of important bile acids in the panel.
♦ Biomaker screening
Screen for differential bile acids, establish diagnostic markers and validation models.
♦ Functional Studies
Linking differential bile acids to observed phenotype.
♦ Mechanism research
Understand mode of action through pathway analysis and combining with other Omics data.
Clinical studies have shown that Intrahepatic cholestasis is closely related to intestinal injury. The gut-liver axis theory suggests that the intestine and liver are closely related, and that bile acids are important mediators linking the intestine and liver. We compared two cholestasis models: a single injection model that received a single subcutaneous ANIT injection (75 mg/kg), and a multiple subcutaneous injection model that received an injection of ANIT (50 mg/kg) every other day for 2 weeks. We used Transmetil (ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate) to relieve intrahepatic cholestasis in the multiple injection group. In the multiple injection group, we found increased hepatic bile duct hyperplasia, increased fibrosis of the liver, increased small intestine inflammation and oxidative damage, increased harmful bile acids, decreased bile acids transporter levels. After treatment with Transmetil, the liver and gut injuries were relieved. These results suggest that intrahepatic cholestasis can cause disorders of the gut-liver axis.
QiDiTangShen granules (QDTS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been used in clinical practice for treating diabetic kidney disease for several years. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that QDTS displayed good efﬁcacy on reducing proteinuria in mice with diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the exact mechanism by which QDTS exerts its reno-protection remains largely unknown. To ascertain whether QDTS could target the gut microbiota-bile acid axis, the db/db mice were adopted as a mouse model of DN. After a 12-week of treatment, we found that QDTS significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and attenuated the pathological injuries of kidney in the db/db mice, while the body weight and blood glucose levels of those mice were not affected. In addition, we found that QDTS significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, and decreased serum levels of total bile acid (TBA) and BA profiles such as β-muricholic acid (β-MCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), tauro β-muricholic acid (Tβ-MCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA). These BAs are associated with the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is highly expressed in kidney. However, there was no significant difference between QDTS-treated and -untreated db/db mice regarding the renal expression of FXR, indicating that other mechanisms may be involved. Conclusively, our study revealed that QDTS significantly alleviated renal injuries in mice with DN. The gut microbiota-bile acid axis may be an important target for the reno-protection of QDTS in DN, but the specific mechanism merits further study.
Background and aims: Bile acids trigger a hepatic inflammatory response, causing cholestatic liver injury. Runt-related transcription factor-1 (RUNX1), primarily known as a master modulator in hematopoiesis, plays a pivotal role in mediating inflammatory responses. However, RUNX1 in hepatocytes is poorly characterized, and its role in cholestasis is unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of hepatic RUNX1 and its underlying mechanisms in cholestasis.
Approach and results: Hepatic expression of RUNX1 was examined in cholestatic patients and mouse models. Mice with liver-specific ablation of Runx1 were generated. Bile duct ligation and 1% cholic acid diet were used to induce cholestasis in mice. Primary mouse hepatocytes and the human hepatoma PLC/RPF/5- ASBT cell line were used for mechanistic studies. Hepatic RUNX1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in cholestatic patients and mice. Liver-specific deletion of Runx1 aggravated inflammation and liver injury in cholestatic mice induced by bile duct ligation or 1% cholic acid feeding. Mechanistic studies indicated that elevated bile acids stimulated RUNX1 expression by activating the RUNX1 -P2 promoter through JAK/STAT3 signaling. Increased RUNX1 is directly bound to the promotor region of inflammatory chemokines, including CCL2 and CXCL2 , and transcriptionally repressed their expression in hepatocytes, leading to attenuation of liver inflammatory response. Blocking the JAK signaling or STAT3 phosphorylation completely abolished RUNX1 repression of bile acid-induced CCL2 and CXCL2 in hepatocytes.
Conclusions: This study has gained initial evidence establishing the functional role of hepatocyte RUNX1 in alleviating liver inflammation during cholestasis through JAK/STAT3 signaling. Modulating hepatic RUNX1 activity could be a new therapeutic target for cholestasis.
Plasma, serum, hemolymph, bile
Animal tissue, placenta, thrombus
Feces, ilntestinal contents
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